Summary from article at end of this post. To get to various options, follow the tabs / screens. Some links explain more detail as a reference. This is a quick summary to make it more handy to run thru the settings for a new install, or a system which has not been adjusted.
Update sharing outside your house
Settings > Update & security > Advanced options > Choose how updates are delivered
You can turn this off by going to Settings > Privacy >
General > Let my apps use my advertising ID for experiences across
apps (turning this off will reset your ID).
Start menu ads:
Settings > Personalization > Start > Occasionally show suggestions in Start.
Notifications (select and turn some off)
Settings > System > Notifications & actions and turning off things like Show me tips about Windows
Cortana "getting to know you". another privacy leak to the mothership.
Settings > Privacy > Speech, inking, & typing and clicking Stop getting to know me.
Review Background Apps:
Settings > Privacy > Background apps
Disable Lock screen (where prudent)
Select which syncing you want
Settings > Accounts > Sync your settings. You can turn off all settings syncing
Visual effects in interface:
System > Advanced system settings. Under the Advanced tab, go to Performance and click Settings
Select update policy:
Settings->Updates and Security->Advanced Options Automatic Updates
Original article 2016